Verifying claims by Kenya’s president on electrification and title deeds
On 1 June 2020 a key nationwide vacation handed in Kenya with not one of the ceremony of years previous.
Madaraka Day marks the day in 1963 when Kenya achieved inner self-rule from the British, however due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the one official commemoration was a broadcast from State Home, the official residence of the nation’s chief.
In his official speech, president Uhuru Kenyatta homed in on his administration’s file since he took workplace in April 2013.
We fact-checked 4 of his claims, three about electrical energy connections to colleges and households, and one concerning the variety of title deeds issued.
(Observe: We additionally appeared into his claims about his highway building file made in the identical speech. You may learn our findings right here.)
Kenya’s training ministry categorises faculties into three ranges: pre-primary, main and secondary.
In accordance with a 2014 ministerial booklet, faculties elevated from 67,051 in 2009 to 76,005 in 2013, and 78,405 in 2014.
In 2019, that they had elevated to 89,337, in keeping with the nationwide statistics workplace, which cited ministry knowledge.
|Variety of faculties in Kenya (2019)|
Supply: Kenya Nationwide Bureau of Statistics
Set up shared between govt businesses
Who electrifies faculties? That is a shared accountability between the Rural Electrification and Renewable Power Company and state utility Kenya Energy, in keeping with power ministry spokesperson Moses Nyandika.
“It’s the accountability of the agricultural electrification company to impress faculties, that’s to wire faculties and something that goes with it. Kenya Energy is available in with the meter, connects, after which payments,” he instructed Africa Examine.
This was the method “anyplace” within the nation, together with city areas such because the capital metropolis Nairobi, Nyandika stated.
Earlier than 2013, the agricultural electrification company centered on secondary faculties, in keeping with its 2016-2021 strategic plan. Some 6,530 of those had been electrified by June 2013, when Kenyatta’s administration began its first full monetary 12 months.
Most main, unsure variety of secondary faculties related
The company then turned its focus to main faculties to assist the brand new authorities’s digital studying plan. By June 2016 it had related 8,259 secondary faculties, and 22,648 of 23,401 public main faculties focused, in keeping with the strategic plan.
A spokesperson for the company instructed Africa Examine it has related 22,927 public main faculties. This was 98.4% of the whole quantity of public main faculties as of 2019.
The company additionally instructed Africa Examine some 8,755 public secondary faculties, polytechnics and establishments of upper studying have been related as of 2020. However it didn’t break down this knowledge additional to permit us to calculate what share of secondary faculties have been electrified.
Most early childhood facilities nonetheless unelectrified
For early childhood growth and training centres, some 204 have been supplied with electrical energy, the company stated. That is lower than 1%, or 0.7% particularly, of the 28,383 early childhood centres captured by the nationwide statistics workplace for 2020.
The president’s determine would due to this fact have been correct if he have been referring solely to public main faculties. Earlier than his administration, some 6,530 secondary faculties had already been related, so he can not take credit score for them.
Accessible knowledge additionally exhibits at the very least 99% of early childhood centres are usually not but related to electrical energy.
Kenya attained self-rule in June 1963. Fifty years after this was June 2013, two months after Kenyatta began his first time period. The president was thus alluding to the electrical energy entry achieved by earlier administrations.
The variety of households in 2013 was between 8.8 million and 12.1 million, in keeping with the 2009 and 2019 censuses respectively. Utilizing the president’s households determine, this means that in 2013, the nationwide grid electrical energy entry was someplace between 37percentand 51%.
However an entry price of fifty.4% was solely achieved in 2019, in keeping with census knowledge.
Case closed? Not precisely. There may be appreciable confusion within the power sector over what qualifies as a family.
Kenya Energy says it provides energy to “particular person households, non-public industries, corporations and authorities establishments”. In its communication on the electrification of households the utility has persistently used a median of 4 individuals in a family.
The nation’s power coverage additionally differentiates between households and industrial connections.
However the nation’s 2018 nationwide electrification technique treats your entire Kenya Energy buyer base as if it’s the similar because the variety of households. Utilizing this method, in June 2013 the nation had 2.33 million connections in whole, 2.1 million of which have been home.
That’s nonetheless 2.2 million home connections fewer than the president’s 4.5 million determine.
Africa Examine reached out to Kenya Energy spokesperson Kevin Sang for clarification on the way it defines a family. We are going to replace this report with the utility’s response. We thus at current can solely price this declare as unproven.
The nation’s 2019 census discovered there have been 12.1 million households in Kenya. Kenyatta’s determine of “shut to eight million” suggests about two-thirds of Kenyan households have electrical energy supplied by the state.
However the census confirmed entry to grid electrical energy was 50.4% in 2019. One other 19.3% had entry via photo voltaic. That is greater than two-thirds, however it isn’t clear how a lot off-grid entry was by the state.
What of connections? Kenyatta took workplace in April 2013. As of June that 12 months, when his first full monetary 12 months started, whole connections have been about 2.8 million, of which 2.5 million have been home.
Treasury knowledge exhibits there have been 7.2 million connections as of June 2019, however doesn’t give a determine for home connections.
Kenya Energy says this had risen to 7.5 million clients as of January 2020, but in addition doesn’t say what number of have been home connections.
The final publicly out there determine for home connections was 6.4 million in June 2018.
We’re but to seek out knowledge that helps the president’s estimate of “shut to eight million”.
The lands ministry web site states that 4.5 million title deeds – the identical quantity quoted by the president – have been issued since 2013. Is that this quantity verifiable?
Robert Gitau, lawyer and companion at Mahmoud Gitau Jillo legislation agency in Nairobi, instructed Africa Examine that for the reason that Land Registration Act of 2012, title deeds are actually known as “certificates of title”. “Title deed was the title underneath the Authorities Lands Act and all different regimes earlier than the Land Registration Act and the Land Act.”
In accordance with the registration legislation, certificates of title show that the particular person named within the certificates owns the land.
Treasury figures present some 3,691,335 title deeds have been issued in six monetary years from 2013/14 to 2018/19. If we issue within the ministry’s variety of 388,000 deeds for the primary 10 months of the 2019/20 monetary 12 months, the entire is 4.42 million, or about 60,000 brief.
We thus reached out to the ministry to make clear what number of title deeds have been issued.
President’s declare near latest estimates
Cupboard secretary Farida Karoney shared knowledge with us which confirmed that from 2013 to 2017, some 3,218,170 title deeds have been issued.
(Observe: In 2018 Kenya Land Alliance reported that about 3.2 million title deeds have been issued in Kenya from 2013 to 2017. The not-for-profit advocates for land reform within the nation. However chief govt Religion Alubbe instructed Africa Examine solely the lands ministry can affirm the variety of deeds issued.)
The minister’s knowledge was damaged down as follows:
|Title deeds issued in Kenya|
|First 50 yrs of independence||5,600,000|
|2017/18, 2018/19 monetary yrs||881,396|
|July 2019-April 2020||388,000|
|Whole processed since 2013||4,487,566|
|Whole since independence||10,087,566|
Supply: Ministry of Lands
Which means about 4.49 million title deeds have been issued since 2013, when the present administration began in workplace, which is analogous to the determine cited by the president.
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