Category: africlaw

Africa is bleeding: The Anglophone disaster in Cameroon

Creator: Mary Izobo
Worldwide Human Rights Lawyer and Gender Advocate

Introduction

The failure to advertise the rule of regulation and democracy creates an setting for battle, typically exacerbated by marginalisation, discrimination,  inequality and inequity. The bitterness of residents roused by violence is often entrenched in lack of fundamental companies and public infrastructure, corruption, lack of non-public and financial safety and lack of transparency and accountability of presidency to its residents.  Thus, the best downside of African international locations is their failure to guard the financial, political, social, and cultural issues of its folks. This 12 months, 2020 has been marred by a collection of human rights violations from Lagos to Kumba, Africa is bleeding.

On 24 October 2020, no less than eight kids have been killed, and dozens wounded by a bunch of armed males on the Mom Francisca Worldwide Bilingual Academy  Kumba, within the Southwest Area of Cameroon. There was a whole lot of assaults in Cameroon since 2016, nonetheless, these assaults have intensified dramatically.

For the reason that Anglophone disaster in Cameroon began in 2016, tons of of individuals have died, over 70 villages destroyed, roughly 160, 000 persons are internally displaced whereas 35, 000 folks have sought refuge in Nigeria, Cameroon’s neighboring nation. This disaster has additionally led to months of common strikes, innumerable days of web shutdown and the lack of tutorial years. What began as a peaceable strike of lecturers and legal professionals in 2016, led to a battle between the federal government and an armed separatist motion of the Anglophone area. This disaster is a severe menace to efforts to construct nationwide concord and unification of Cameroon and has led to the reestablishment of sturdy contentions and conducts in assist of secession and/or federalism by the Anglophones. It is because on the middle of this battle is the Anglophones’ want to secede from Cameroon and kind their very own unbiased state known as Ambazonia.

Many analysts contend that the present battle is a results of the unmanageable historic animosity between Cameroon’s Anglophones and Francophones when it comes to various language, tradition and identification. Thus, if the variations in identification, language and tradition are the first drivers of the battle as these analysts contend, it’s fairly stunning that Cameroon, one of the ethnically various international locations in Africa, has to an amazing extent prevented battle till 2016. This disaster goes manner past language, tradition or identification. It’s a resurgence of an outdated downside referred to as the Anglophone downside. The Anglophone downside is usually described because the evolution of the Anglophone’s consciousness from the sensation of being marginalised, exploited and homogenised politically, economically and socially by the Francophone-dominated state and even the Francophone inhabitants in Cameroon. The Anglophone downside is pushed by the marginalisation and discrimination in opposition to the Anglophones in Cameroon in decision-making nationally; the dilapidation of the area’s infrastructure; the exploitation of the area’s wealthy financial assets by successive Francophone administration with out a lot beneficiation to the native communities; marginalisation in human useful resource improvement and deployment by the inundation of Anglophone areas with Francophone staff and employees; the marginalisation of the Anglophones within the allocation of financial assets by the Francophones particularly by the mismanagement of the financial patrimony within the Northwest and Southwest Areas of Cameroon; the frequent regulation system and the francophonisation of the English academic system; gradual erosion of Anglophone identification; the predominance of French and Francophones in official paperwork and public places of work respectively; in addition to the second-class citizenship of the Anglophones when in comparison with the Francophones.

These atrocities and the killings of the harmless can’t proceed and should cease. Whereas President Paul Biya of Cameroon has made a number of commitments to finish the battle in Cameroon, there needs to be a real dedication for the equal and equitable distribution of assets to the Anglophone areas as enshrined within the preamble of the Structure of the Republic of Cameroon 1996, which stipulates that each one residents “have equal rights and obligations” and “the State shall present all its residents with the circumstances crucial for his or her improvement” and that the state has a optimistic obligation to make sure that it protects the rights of the minorities. This should be upheld by the federal government of Cameroon.

Even when there’s a dedication on the a part of the Anglophones and the federal government of Cameroon to finish the battle and there are assets to take action, there could also be a difficulty with the authorising setting. It is because President Paul Biya began ruling Cameroon in 1982 and is at the moment serving his seventh time period, making him one of many longest-serving presidents in Africa and the world. Because of this for a mean Cameroonian, S/he has solely recognized one president since beginning. For the reason that early Nineties, it has been speculated that President Biya is aloof to the wants of his folks and has made only a few public appearances. He’s termed an absentee president who commonly spends prolonged intervals in Switzerland with the excuse from his authorities that he goes to Switzerland to work with out being disturbed. This deficit in governance, in addition to the financial apartheid of the Anglophones, are a few of the causes for the demand for a change within the system of presidency from autocratic to democratic rule.

The bilateral companions of Cameroon similar to France, United Kingdom, United States of America and different nationwide, regional and worldwide organisations ought to put stress on the Cameroonian authorities to place in place a plan of action to assuage the scenario, partake in a real nationwide dialogue and remodel the governance archetype. The federal government of Cameroon ought to enable for negotiation and mediation in the course of the nationwide dialogue between events, the place crucial.

The precept of territorial integrity and sovereignty might bar worldwide actors from intervening. Nevertheless, one can begin from the low hanging fruits. For instance, European media can name out President Biya for at all times spending his time and his nation’s assets in Switzerland and different European international locations with out cheap justification. Lastly, the African Union has an enormous position to play on this disaster. Identical to the Confederation of African Soccer (CAF) disadvantaged Cameroon the best to host the Africa Cup of Nations in 2019, the African Union can strip Cameroon of the advantages that it enjoys from the continental physique and might also place financial and political sanctions on Cameroon similar to journey bans, restrictions on entry to companies within the worldwide area till it resolves the Anglophone disaster. Thus, it’s crucial that the Anglophone disaster might proceed to loom if the Anglophones nonetheless really feel marginalized. Due to this fact, the federal government of Cameroon should make a aware effort  to deal with the issues of the Anglophones, significantly within the allocation and administration of financial assets and illustration in state establishments.

In regards to the Creator

Mary Izobo is a human rights lawyer with expertise within the subject of human rights, governance, and rule of regulation for improvement. She holds a Bachelor of Arts (BA Hons) in French Language from the College of Ibadan, Nigeria; Bachelor of Legal guidelines (LLB) from the College of Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom; Barrister at Legislation (BL) from the Nigerian Legislation College, Abuja, Nigeria; a Grasp of Legal guidelines (LLM) in Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa from the College of Pretoria, South Africa; and a Grasp of Legal guidelines (LLM) in Rule of Legislation for Growth from Loyola College Chicago, United States of America. She is at the moment a Physician of Legal guidelines candidate with a deal with governance in Africa on the College of Pretoria, South Africa.



Supply hyperlink

Read More

Makes an attempt at constitutional reform in The Gambia: Whither the Draft Structure?

Creator: Satang Nabaneh
Put up-doctoral Fellow, Centre for Human Rights, College of Pretoria

The Gambia’s constitution-drafting course of, geared toward ushering in a 3rd Republic, has reached an unlucky dead-end. Greater than two years after the constitutional evaluate course of started, and after a extremely acrimonious and polarised debate within the Nationwide Meeting, Parliament, one week in the past (on 22 September 2020), rejected the proposed Structure Promulgation Invoice, 2020 (‘the Invoice’). The Invoice would have enabled the eventual promulgation the Structure of the Gambia, 2020 (‘Draft Structure’) and the repeal of the Structure of the Republic of The Gambia, 1997 (‘1997 Structure’). Twenty-three lawmakers within the Nationwide Meeting voted in opposition to the Invoice, whereas thirty-one supported it. This was, nevertheless, not a sufficiently big majority to satisfy the brink requirement of three-quarters of members wanted to impact constitutional change. The Draft Structure may, subsequently, not be put to a referendum.

The motion for a brand new Structure

In December 2016, after twenty-two years of authoritarian rule, Yahya Jammeh was lastly voted out of workplace, and opposition chief, Adama Barrow, voted in. Though Jammeh at first accepted the outcomes, he modified his thoughts every week later – triggering a political disaster within the nation. The Financial Group of West African States (ECOWAS) mobilised troops with a mandate to enter the nation and forcefully oust the previous President ought to diplomatic missions fail. On 21 January 2017, nevertheless, Jammeh left The Gambia for Equatorial Guinea. This unprecedented political occasion kickstarted a transition from dictatorship to democracy. But, ending the dictatorship was simply step one. The imaginative and prescient for The Gambia, in transitioning from an authoritarian rule to a democratic state, included drafting a brand new structure and measures to make sure accountability for previous human rights violations. This included the institution of a Fact, Reconciliation and Reparations Fee (TRRC), to inquire into human rights violations dedicated July 1994 to January 2017.

Constitutional change and a rebuilding of the foundations for good governance and democracy had been a marketing campaign promise of the ruling coalition. Consequently, a key pillar of the brand new ‘Nationwide Transitional Justice Programme’ turned the formulation of a brand new structure.  Main, in December 2017, to the institution of the Constitutional Assessment Fee (CRC). The formal means of reviewing the 1997 Structure and drafting a brand new one began in June 2018 with the appointment of 11 members (5 of whom are girls, one in all which was the Vice Chairperson) as Commissioners of the CRC.

The CRC had a two-fold mandate, first, evaluate the 1997 Structure and draft a brand new one, and second, put together a report on the draft structure. The CRC used a participatory and consultative method to solicit the views and opinions of Gambians about constitutional points they wished to see addressed of their new structure.

The CRC kicked-off the evaluate of the 1997 Structure by making ready a complete record of 369 questions and points on which public opinion was sought. The Fee undertook an preliminary nationwide tour, which started in November 2018, adopted by additional consultations in early 2019 in addition to further family and on-line surveys. It additionally engaged in dialogue with varied actors together with political events, central and native authorities establishments and civil society organisations. As well as, the CRC consulted with Gambians within the diaspora in Europe, United States, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia and different African nations.

Following these consultations in addition to some in-depth analysis, the Fee produced a draft structure, revealed on 15 November 2019. The CRC then launched into a second and remaining nationwide, public session tour, this time to make folks conscious of and to solicit suggestions on the 2019 model of the draft structure. On 30 March 2020, the CRC submitted the ‘Remaining Draft Structure and Report’ to the President. In step with necessities within the 1997 Structure, the Invoice was twice revealed within the Authorities Gazette (first on 28 Could after which on 28 August 2020), whereafter it was launched within the Nationwide Meeting (part 226). The Invoice was tabled earlier than the Nationwide Meeting on 14 September 2020.

The Draft Structure launched a number of measures geared toward enhancing and strengthening democracy. This features a presidential time period restrict, limits on government energy, measures to make sure better political inclusion of marginalised teams (together with girls, youth and individuals with disabilities) and a complete Invoice of Rights chapter, compliant with worldwide and regional human rights requirements. The general public had excessive hopes for important constitutional change. The personalised politics of the latest previous, the undemocratic provisions in, and frequent modification of, the 1997 Structure and a whole disregard of the rule of legislation by the previous President left Gambians with a need for change. Sadly, nevertheless, these hopes have been dashed when the Invoice didn’t obtain the requisite majority vote in Parliament.

Why did the Invoice not go?

A method of making an attempt to find out why the Invoice didn’t go is to take a look at who voted in opposition to it within the Nationwide Meeting. From this it’s attainable to take a position what their primary considerations have been. A evaluate of the parliamentary debates means that the most important considerations have been these of the ruling authorities. Concern had been taken with the restrictions to the scope of government energy the Draft Structure would implement and with the truth that the presidential time period restrict would function retroactively. This later provision would guarantee the present time period of President Barrow shall be counted in the direction of his time period restrict.

What subsequent?

The rejection of the Invoice on its deserves signifies that Gambians wouldn’t get to see this model of the 2020 Draft Structure in a future referendum. So, what now? Because the Authorities has not but shared any plans we’re left to take a position, I contemplate two prospects right here.

One possibility is to amend the 1997 Structure to incorporate a number of the extra progressive provisions within the 2020 Draft Structure. The issue with modification is that it must comply with the identical course of as for the promulgation of a brand new structure (part 226 (2)(b) and (4) of the 1997 Structure). In different phrases, it could require approval of three-quarters of all of the members of the Nationwide Meeting on the second and third readings and would additionally need to be handed in a nationwide referendum (requiring 50% turnout and 75% approval).

A possible second possibility is to return to the drafting board – have the Constitutional Assessment Fee restart the drafting course of afresh, aiming to resolve contentious points which might be stopping consensus. Nevertheless, this too can be difficult. Particularly, it could be troublesome to get buy-in and political legitimacy. Nearly all of parliamentarians that did help the Invoice and subsequently the 2020 Draft Structure will view a brand new course of with suspicion. Given the assertive citizenry and engaged and revitalised civil society we now have seen in latest instances, the general public can be unlikely to purchase into any course of that produces a watered-down model. Moreover, such a course of may also make it troublesome to garner the help of improvement companions. And, even when going again to the drafting board is possible, success is clearly not assured.

Classes learnt

Although the constitution-drafting course of has not ended within the adoption of a brand new structure, there are some necessary insights to be gleaned from this expertise. For one factor, The Gambia’s expertise demonstrates how political elites can function hindrances when proposed constitutional change threatens their political energy. It’s subsequently necessary for structure drafters and teachers alike to use their minds to how this could be averted in different constitution-making processes.

Whereas this has been a pricey train, it was value it, as a result of Gambians have grappled with some necessary constitutional concepts, and reached insights that shall be useful in the long term. Given its nice quest for change and the broad consensus that there can’t be any significant break with the political previous with out true and full reform, I’m assured that The Gambia will finally give itself a brand new structure.

This text was initially revealed on the IACL-AIDC Weblog

Advised quotation: Satang Nabaneh, ‘Makes an attempt at Constitutional Reform in The Gambia: Whither the Draft Structure?’ IACL-AIDC Weblog (29 September 2020) https://blog-iacl-aidc.org/2020-posts/2020/9/29/attempts-at-constitutional-reform-in-the-gambia-whither-the-draft-constitution

Concerning the Creator:
Satang Nabaneh is a Put up-doctoral Fellow on the Centre for Human Rights, School of Legislation, College of Pretoria. She is the Programme Supervisor of the LLM/MPhil in Sexual and Reproductive Rights in Africa (SRRA) on the Centre. Satang holds the levels LLD and LLM in Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa from the College of Pretoria and an LLB from the College of The Gambia. Her analysis pursuits embrace a broad vary of points associated to worldwide human rights, girls’s rights, democracy, and constitutionalism.



Supply hyperlink

Read More

Adolescent women and younger ladies have a proper to know: Accessing data on sexual and reproductive well being and rights within the wake of COVID-19

Writer: Kerigo Odada
Human Rights Lawyer; LLM (Sexual & Reproductive Rights in Africa) pupil, Centre for Human Rights, College of Pretoria

For a lot of adolescent women and younger ladies world wide, adolescence marks not solely the graduation of puberty, but additionally a time the place statistically, the danger of going through human rights abuses equivalent to sexual violence, exploitation, and different opposed outcomes of intercourse will increase. Nonetheless, regardless of this excessive predisposition to abuse, adolescent women and younger ladies nonetheless face a number of obstacles in accessing data on sexual and reproductive well being and rights (SRHR). Discriminatory cultural values, legal guidelines, and insurance policies which are pushed by the stigma hooked up to sexuality have made it difficult for members of this social group to get pleasure from full entry to a lot wanted SRHR data.

As of April 2020, about 1.725 billion college students worldwide have been compelled out of studying establishments because of COVID-19. Though the closure of colleges and different lockdown measures have been strategic in controlling the unfold of COVID-19, this case sadly meant that many adolescent women and younger ladies have been now confined in houses the place they have been, and nonetheless are, at a heightened threat of extended sexual abuse, exploitation and detrimental outcomes of intercourse.

Though lockdowns, quarantines, and different isolation measures have had a detrimental influence on the lives of numerous adolescent women and younger ladies worldwide,  it isn’t COVID-19 that’s liable for a couple of lady being raped throughout the first 17 days of quarantine in Peru. It’s not COVID-19 that’s liable for “a every day common of 48 instances of violence towards youngsters, together with sexual assault and rape for the reason that starting of the lockdown in Bolivia”. It’s not COVID-19 that’s liable for roughly 4,000 college women being impregnated in Machakos County, Kenya throughout the first 4 months of lockdown, neither is it liable for impregnating round  2,300 schoolgirls and marrying off round 128 of them in Uganda. These are the implications of pre-existing gender inequalities which are pushed by androcentric programs of justice, well being care and training -systems which are oftentimes designed to guard perpetrators whereas leaving adolescent women and younger ladies uncovered.

Denying adolescent women and younger ladies the chance to freely entry SRHR data throughout this era is a failure on the a part of governments as a result of they’ve an obligation to make sure all individuals can absolutely get pleasure from the best to well being.  This strategy doesn’t consider the lived realities of many adolescents and younger ladies, nor their evolving capacities.  SRHR data empowers members of this social group with important data, expertise, and values equivalent to important pondering, communication,  negotiation, decision-making and assertiveness all of which empower them to navigate a world the place they’re extremely inclined to sexual exploitation and abuse, little one marriage, unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions,  HIV/AIDS and different sexually transmitted infections.

A number of organisations engaged on adolescent women and younger ladies’s SRHR, have referred to as upon governments to make sure we do not need a repeat of what was witnessed throughout the 2014 Ebola outbreak the place teenage pregnancies elevated by 65%. These organisations famous that measures taken to answer epidemics typically go away adolescent women and younger ladies susceptible to sexual abuse and exploitation as a result of they’re often remoted from individuals, programs and assets that may assist them safeguard their SRHR. Due to this fact, preventative measures equivalent to uninterrupted entry to SRHR companies and data should be ensured to safeguard the well being and effectively being of members of this social group.

Conserving communication channels open, knowledgeable, and supportive of adolescent women and younger ladies play a key function in guaranteeing this social group acquires sensible data that can assist defend them from abuse and different detrimental outcomes of intercourse. It’s due to this fact crucial that governments, in collaboration with the media, develop and implement a framework for partaking with adolescent women and younger ladies on issues referring to SRHR.

Partaking the Media

Media has one of many best potentials to advance SRHR globally. Given its “capability to disseminate data in a broad, well timed, and accessible method”, sturdy partnerships and collaboration with journalists and social media activists on the international and native ranges are important in safeguarding adolescent women and younger ladies’s SRHR.  Governments, in collaboration with organisations engaged on SRHR, ought to spend money on creating and sustaining the curiosity of the media in reporting on SRHR points as a result of this may guarantee adolescent women and younger ladies have uninterrupted entry to SRHR data. This additionally includes strengthening the capability of the media to have interaction within the subject. Digital trainings, workshops, and webinars needs to be organised to teach the media on find out how to report on SRHR points. Serving to journalists get a deeper understanding of the problems will be certain that they’re motivated to report on them.

A great collaboration with the media can result in the manufacturing and dissemination of high quality marketing campaign and academic supplies equivalent to motion pictures, radio reveals, songs, posters, stickers, and on-line campaigns. For instance, in  Burkina Faso, a partnership with the Nationwide Coalition for the Abandonment of Youngster Marriage noticed the coaching of 30 nationwide journalists on little one marriage, whereas in Niger, radio ‘Voix du Sahel’ and 9 personal radio stations labored collectively to air a cleaning soap opera that efficiently raised consciousness on little one marriage within the area.

However, in as a lot as utilizing media might be important in guaranteeing SRHR data is accessible to adolescent women and younger ladies, stakeholders should additionally be certain that they put in place measures to guard this group as they have interaction with these media platforms. That is particularly related for on-line fashions of communication, equivalent to social media. In keeping with UNICEF, youngsters now spend lots of time on-line both for college, or when socialising with associates which consequently places them susceptible to on-line sexual exploitation and misinformation. In a report launched in April, UNICEF famous that, for the reason that pandemic began, web utilization had elevated by as much as 50% in some elements of the world as life grew to become increasingly digitalised. With fewer bodily accessible actions throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, younger individuals are spending extra time shopping the web. In Canada, as an illustration,  Cybertip.ca, an internet sexual exploitation of youngsters tip line, reported a 66% improve in reviews in April following the implementation of lockdowns. In India, there was a 95% rise in visitors looking for little one sexual abuse content material,  whereas in Europe, Europol (The European Union police company) has sounded the alarm over vital will increase in exercise referring to little one sexual abuse and exploitation on each the floor net and darkish net throughout the COVID-19 lockdown interval.

Governments ought to associate with different stakeholders equivalent to civil society organisations, and community-based organisations to develop methods to have interaction the media, each mainstream and social media. This engagement ought to finally result in the event of a framework to teach the youth on SRHR and needs to be a part of the academic applications rolled out in numerous international locations. Forming partnerships might be instrumental in bringing collectively a various vary of individuals and organisations, thereby facilitating the trade of data, expertise, expertise, and supplies whereas offering peer assist, encouragement, and motivation. Partnerships, particularly with grassroots organisations, assist in getting neighborhood buy-in which is important in addressing points associated to younger ladies’s entry to complete SRHR data.

For instance, technical, monetary, and logistical assist may very well be given to initiatives equivalent to InfoAdoJeunes, a cell app developed in Togo to assist youth entry credible SRHR data throughout this time of COVID-19. One other profitable initiative is U-Report, an SMS-based peer counselling service in Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and Uganda, that was developed to assist steady coaching and solutions to younger individuals’s questions and considerations on SRHR. U-report geared up mentors with cell entry that reaches over 200,000 adolescents with youth-friendly data primarily on little one marriage.

The pandemic has uncovered the truth that sexual exploitation of adolescent women and younger ladies, regardless of being a gross violation of human rights, is deeply woven into the tapestry of many societies. A state of affairs that’s additional worsened by both lack of entry to data on SRHR, or if entry is there, the data is complicated or conflicting. When this group lacks data on their SRHR, they’re left susceptible to sexual exploitation, coercion, sexually transmitted infections together with HIV/AIDS, unintended pregnancies, and unsafe abortions. It’s due to this fact of paramount significance that we offer adolescent women with complete data on SRHR that prepares them for a secure, productive, and fulfilling life.  To proceed denying adolescent women and younger ladies entry to this data below the pretext of defending them from immorality is discriminatory and a violation of their rights.

This text was initially revealed on the SRHM Weblog

Concerning the Writer:
Kerigo Odada is a human rights lawyer who specialises in Sexual and Reproductive Well being and Rights and at present serves as a Board Member of The Youth Coalition for Sexual and Reproductive Rights. She is at present a LLM (SRRA) pupil on the Centre for Human Rights, College nof Pretoria



Supply hyperlink

Read More

Ending youngster marriage: A name to motion

Writer: Mary Izobo
Worldwide Human Rights Lawyer and Gender Advocate

Introduction

The Worldwide Day of the Lady Baby is commemorated globally yearly on 11 October since 2012 to focus on the injustices women face based mostly on their gender, whereas advancing the fulfilment of their rights, growth and wellbeing. The United Nations theme for  the Worldwide Day of the Lady Baby 2020 is ‘My voice, our equal future.’ There’s a particular emphasis on the woman youngster as a result of there’s a direct type of discrimination towards women who are sometimes disadvantaged of their elementary human rights. Hundreds of thousands of women from start are discriminated towards on the grounds of intercourse and gender. This yr, as we commemorate the Worldwide Day of the Lady Baby, it is very important deliver to the world’s consideration, youngster marriage which continues to be an endless anathema that serves as a problem within the fulfilment and delight of the rights and welfare of the woman youngster.

Baby marriage is the wedding of a kid earlier than she or he turns 18 years of age. It’s a international phenomenon that continues to impede the wellbeing of younger girls and boys. Baby marriage impacts each girls and boys, however 9 in ten kids married off earlier than they flip 18 years are women. Each two seconds, a lady is married off, earlier than she is bodily, psychologically or emotionally developed sufficient to turn out to be a bride or mom. An estimated 650 million ladies and women on the earth right this moment have been married earlier than they turned 18 years and one-third of those ladies and women have been married off earlier than they turned 15 years. In accordance with United Nations Worldwide Kids Emergency Fund (UNICEF), out of the world’s inhabitants, 1.1 billion are women and 22 million of them are married off earlier than they attain maturity.

Subsequent to Asia, Africa has the very best prevalence of kid marriage, a decadence deeply rooted in society and an atrocity that could be a main obstacle to regional growth and prosperity. It’s believed that ‘if present developments proceed, nearly half of the world’s youngster brides in 2050 shall be African.’  The United Nations Baby Rights Conference (CRC) which ensures the rights of youngsters, is essentially the most ratified treaty on the earth, ratified by 196 nations excluding the US of America and Africa’s latest state – South Sudan. The African Constitution on the Rights and Welfare of the Baby (ACRWC) which offers with peculiar human rights challenges affecting kids in Africa has been ratified by 49 out of the 55 nations in Africa. The CRC and the ACRWC recognise non-discrimination, devotion to the very best pursuits of the kid, the precise wants and rights of the kid, in addition to respect for the views of the kid. Even nations which have signed, ratified and domesticated the CRC, ACRWC and different worldwide devices on the promotion and safety of the rights of the kid, fail to adjust to the implementation of those devices and insurance policies due to gender-discriminatory norms, socio-cultural practices, custom, customized and faith.

Gender discriminatory norms, for instance, have marked a feminine youngster as inferior to a male youngster. The start of a male youngster is well known with nice splendor and ardor, whereas the start of a feminine youngster is acquired with disappointment as a result of she is seen as a burden when in comparison with her male counterpart. Be it schooling, well being, primary providers, safety, participation, inclusion, the woman youngster is at all times handled unequally. Sadly, women are led to imagine that their aim in life is to prepare dinner, clear, serve and please their husbands in addition to bear kids. That is inconceivable and unfathomable within the twenty first century the place we have now robust feminine leaders who’ve made landmark strides in methods utterly dominated by males like Ms Chimamanda Adichie, a prolific and award-winning writer; President Sahle-Work Zewde of Ethiopia; Mrs Amina J Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-Basic of the United Nations; Former President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia and Mrs Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala who’s presently vying for the place of the Director-Basic of the World Commerce Organisation and will very properly turn out to be the primary feminine chief of the establishment in its 25 years of existence.

The results of kid marriage on the woman youngster

Baby marriage impacts the schooling of a lady youngster as she is pressured to deal with her husband and/or kids. Consequently, these women are unable to go to highschool or proceed their schooling, and their monetary freedom turns into hindered. This leaves them in a continuing state of abject poverty and maybe elevate a technology of girls and women that proceed to stay beneath the minimal wage.

Additionally, youngster brides are vulnerable to home violence. The Worldwide Council of Analysis on Ladies (ICRW) contends that women between the ages of 15 and 19 years outdated with little or no schooling are at a better probability of being violated than older and educated ladies.

As well as, youngster brides endure from post-traumatic stress dysfunction (PTSD) and despair. These women are made to stay with their husbands and in solitude away from their households and mates. Baby brides are extra vulnerable to HIV/AIDS and STIs as they’re unable to debate contraceptives with their husbands. Baby brides are additionally more likely to endure problems from early or teenage being pregnant, generally resulting in dying. Roughly 70 000 women die every year because of problems from being pregnant and/or childbirth. These women additionally endure from miscarriage, obstetric fistula, and postpartum haemorrhaging.

Aspiration 6 of the African Union (AU) Agenda 2063 and Purpose 5 of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Growth Targets (SDGs) 2030 units goal on ending youngster marriages. Nevertheless, youngster marriage continues to rob the woman youngster of her alternative to develop, study, be empowered and develop to her full potential as youngster marriage makes the woman youngster dependent trapping them in a perpetual cycle of poverty.

Conclusion

We should all come collectively to finish youngster marriage. The start of a feminine youngster have to be celebrated with equal zeal as that of a male youngster. There have to be group possession and obligation in eliminating youngster marriage. There have to be sensitisation programmes that will create attitudinal shifts in direction of gender equality and the mainstreaming of the rights and wellbeing of the feminine youngster. We should regularly launch nationwide consciousness marketing campaign towards youngster marriage by highlighting the hazards of kid marriage on the kid, household, society, nation and the world at massive.

Women have to be empowered by means of the supply of data on sexual and reproductive well being, help networks, profession steering, function modelling and mentorship programmes. College curriculum must remove gender roles and schooling have to be inclusive.

There must be state accountability to implement legal guidelines, insurance policies, schemes, constitutional and worldwide commitments on gender equality in addition to institutionalising gender-sensitive legal guidelines and programmes throughout the nationwide methods.

Women need a world the place everybody has equal rights and alternatives; a world with out patriarchy; a world the place she will be able to voice her opinions in her surroundings and be heard in choices that have an effect on her life; a world the place she will not be marginalised, stigmatised or victimised. Women need to have entry to equal alternatives to study, develop and prosper as their male counterpart. On this world, she is equal and gender equality is the usual. We should finish youngster marriage now to guard her rights and wellbeing and safeguard her future and the way forward for the world.

Concerning the Writer

Mary Izobo is a human rights lawyer with expertise within the discipline of human rights, governance, and rule of legislation for growth. She holds a Bachelor of Arts (BA Hons) in French Language from the College of Ibadan, Nigeria; Bachelor of Legal guidelines (LLB) from the College of Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom; Barrister at Legislation (BL) from the Nigerian Legislation College, Abuja, Nigeria; a Grasp of Legal guidelines (LLM) in Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa from the College of Pretoria, South Africa; and a Grasp of Legal guidelines (LLM) in Rule of Legislation for Growth from Loyola College Chicago, United States of America. She is presently a Physician of Legal guidelines candidate with a deal with governance in Africa on the College of Pretoria, South Africa.



Supply hyperlink

Read More

Essential evaluation of Pan-African Parliament’s decision on peace and safety in Africa

Writer: Masalu Masanja
LLM (HRDA) scholar, Centre for Human Rights, College of Pretoria

Introduction

The Pan-African Parliament (PAP) is among the many 9 organs of the African Union (AU) established with the goal of guaranteeing the complete participation of African folks within the growth and financial integration of Africa. This objective is anchored underneath Article 17 of the of the AU Constitutive Act. One of many goals of PAP is the promotion of peace and safety on the continent. By way of its mandate, PAP is restricted to consultative and advisory energy throughout the AU. Its full-fledged legislative energy is supplied for underneath the Protocol to the Constitutive Act of the African Union on the Institution of the Pan-African Parliament (Malabo Protocol), which is but to return into drive. This opinion piece seeks to look at critically the decision on peace and safety with a selected give attention to the Continental Early Warning Mechanism (CEWM).

Battle and violence in Africa are among the many obstacles to financial growth and integration in Africa. Consequently, the PAP handed a decision on the promotion of peace and safety in Africa at its Second Session of the Fourth Parliament held from 5 to 17 October 2015. This opinion piece particularly focuses on PAP’s advice on the necessity of reinforcing CEWM in battle prevention in Africa and the institution of an African centre for battle and arbitration specializing in offering coaching and capability constructing on various dispute decision mechanisms within the 5 sub-regions of Africa, underneath the oversight of African Courtroom on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

Reinforcing CEWM

PAP’s decision emphasised the reinforcement of the CEWM in guaranteeing peace and safety in Africa. CEWM is a creature of the Protocol on the Peace and Safety Council and was established underneath Article 12 of the Protocol. it is among the pillars of the African Peace and Safety Structure, as a part of the battle prevention mechanism in Africa.  CEWM is geared toward giving the AU a proactive system of battle prevention as against the normal response system. For that reason, ‘early warning is perceived as an efficient device to motion” and encompasses the gathering of data, evaluation of data, formulation of greatest/worst eventualities and response choices and communication to decision-makers.

It’s from this background that the PAP urged the AU to strengthen the CEWM with a view to forestall battle in Africa. The decision captured the potential of CEWM in avoiding battle. However, regardless of CEWM, Africa nonetheless experiences lethal political violence which price the lives of so many harmless folks. This name into query the efficacy of CEWM in stopping battle earlier than it erupts.

Regardless that the PAP decision concluded that the AU wanted to strengthen its CEWM, the story shouldn’t be all gloomy. Based on Noyes and Yarwood, CEWM made progress when it comes to capacity to observe, analyse, and supply warning of rising battle in Africa. On this regard, CEWM entails advance information assortment, on which the AU has made vital development. This information assortment mechanism places Africa forward of different regional our bodies as a result of AU has complete information assortment managed by scenario Room in AU.

Nonetheless, the inefficiency of CEWM in Africa comes from the lack of knowledge when it comes to evaluation of the data collected. On this space, the CEWM is dealing with problem due to the dearth of extremely expert and educated personnel. Equally, because the decision clearly articulated, the AU shouldn’t be proactive in giving a response. It’s because after the evaluation of knowledge collected is labored on, the Peace and Safety Council (PSC) doesn’t obtain early warning for it to make choice. At this level, there may be very poor communication between CEWM and PSC. This implies the PSC doesn’t normally get the required info for it to behave. Even when the PSC has the data, the PSC doesn’t normally work as rapidly with the data furnished and the AU is meant to be pro-active in performing accordingly and to inform member states of warning indicators.

The decision additionally champions institution of an African centre for battle and arbitration specializing in offering, coaching and capability constructing on Different Dispute Decision mechanisms within the 5 sub-regions of Africa underneath the oversight of African Courtroom on Human and Peoples’ Rights. The proposal for establishing an African centre for battle and arbitration is sweet concept. It will be higher if Africa would have such a centre, however the proposal that the African Courtroom ought to have oversight is questionable and problematic for 3 causes. Firstly, this can have repercussion on accountability of African States on concern of human rights abuse as a result of the court docket shall be overloaded with one other mandate in case extra member states make declaration pursuant to article 34(6).  Secondly, the proposal poses a problem on personnel and experience. At the moment, the court docket is made up of judges who’re consultants on human proper. Thus, if the proposal is to be carried out, it is going to require the recruitment of consultants within the subject of battle administration. This clearly, has monetary implications on the a part of the African Courtroom. Lastly, extension of the mandate of the African Courtroom to the oversight of the African centre for battle and arbitration may also have monetary implications. The Amnesty Worldwide Report on the Malabo Protocol highlights that the African Courtroom a number of instances raised the difficulty of sources allotted to it by the African Union. Subsequently, the extension of the mandate will critically hamper the court docket in discharging its full mandate if not accompanied by commensurate monetary sources.

Conclusively, if the AU takes the CEWM critically as a method of stopping battle in Africa (as PAP’s decision suggests), Africa will be capable to promote peace and safety and make sure the financial growth and integration throughout the continent. It’s because peace and safety are inextricably linked with financial growth. In guaranteeing a affluent and developed Africa, the AU should reinforce its CEWM.  Additionally, the institution of an African centre for battle and arbitration needn’t be underneath the auspices of the African Courtroom, as doing so may have a unfavorable influence on the accountability and enforcement of human rights as stipulated within the African Constitution.

In regards to the Writer

Masalu Masanja is at present finishing an LLM in Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa on the Centre for Human Rights, College of Pretoria. He’s connected to the Democracy and Civic Engagement Unit of the Centre.

 



Supply hyperlink

Read More

Uncontacted peoples: A authorized failure

Creator: Ross Sales space
LLB scholar, College of KwaZulu-Natal

Within the age of antiquity, sensible minds spoke of misplaced cities and forbidden areas that lay past the perimeters of the identified world. Plato famously wrote of Atlantis – a hyper-advanced civilisation that fell from favour with the Gods and was submerged beneath the ocean as a consequence. Because the world developed, nevertheless, and explorers chartered the unchartered, people realised that these myths have been precisely that – myths. However world enlargement revealed different mysteries, and whereas the concepts of golden cities and sunken empires have light into fable, misplaced and remoted tribal teams have definitely existed – and nonetheless do to this present day.

It’s roughly estimated that some 100 tribes nonetheless function in different isolation worldwide, with the majority located in numerous components of South America. Having largely resisted exterior contact (or contact with neighbouring tribes), these indigenous teams have earned the title “uncontacted peoples” – a time period that has sparked curiosity amongst vacationers and missionaries alike. Appearing from curiosity or private intent, many outsiders have sought to intrude upon remoted communities – with differing outcomes. In some situations, tribal teams have welcomed strangers and allowed them to view and even take part in cultural actions. The Jawara tribe on the Andaman Islands of India, has been identified to permit vacationers and researchers onto their reservation with out bother – even often sending their kids to settlements past the reserve to be educated. Different tribes, nevertheless, are identified to reply to outsiders with aggression and violence. The inhabitants of North Sentinel Island are notable for ferociously resisting exterior contact, with two fishermen and an American missionary, John Allen Chau, dying as a consequence of trespassing onto the island.

Regardless of every explicit tribe’s nature, the overall consensus of the worldwide group is that they should be universally protected to protect their customs and methods of life. This has resulted in a string of comparatively profitable and unsuccessful authorized measures at each native and worldwide ranges.

It appears that evidently every respective nation has tackled the difficulty of tribal safety in a different way. For instance, within the case of North Sentinel Island, the Indian authorities has established a no-go-zone inside a 5-mile radius of the island to push back trespassers and overflying plane. The place a tribe exists inside a landlocked area, such because the Awá in Brazil, reserves have usually been demarcated to protect their existence and stop a pressured assimilation of tribe members into modernity. The Awa tribe has been notably affected by exterior interference and it’s largely on account of worldwide strain from activist teams that their existence has been ensured. As a tribe of hunter gatherers, they stay on the transfer, however their land has turn out to be more and more smaller as logging firms encroach additional into their territory. There are even studies of such firms hiring gunmen (referred to as pistoleros) to “take away” tribe members who stand in the way in which of their manufacturing. Nobody is protected from such assaults and even kids have been killed by the hands of employed weapons.

Because of the plight confronted by indigenous teams, international locations in South America have turn out to be more and more conscious of the necessity to defend indigenous teams and have even handed state-binding laws to realize this. Brazil, for instance, has a longtime group referred to as FUNAI, which provides impact to tribe-related legislation and ensures that firms with industrial pursuits in land occupied by indigenous teams chorus from finishing up their actions. Nonetheless, lately, FUNAI has suffered steady funds cuts which have hampered its protecting skills. Brazil’s president, Jair Bolsonaro, has additionally vowed to extensively take away the authorized boundaries which have protected the Amazon from financial exercise – primarily opening up the forest to commercialisation. Mounting elements resembling these have elevated fears that the times of uncontacted peoples are fairly actually numbered.

It’s no shock that a lot of the present laws handed relating to tribal safety has been ignored by non-public firms and people with misguided intent or a disregard for the survival of native teams. Dozens of tribal communities are located on land wealthy in assets resembling oil, fuel and timber which have in flip attracted companies that see remoted teams as mere obstacles within the better scheme of enterprise.

The informal vacationer is not any much less harmful than the company. Many looking for to fulfill their curiosity have illegally ventured into tribal reserves – usually with tragic outcomes. Vacationers are often met with aggression from tribal inhabitants, and tragedies are frequent when the no-go-zones are ignored. Nonetheless, it’s finally the tribes themselves who face probably the most important risk from exterior intrusion. As a result of they’ve by no means come into contact with illnesses and diseases (at the same time as trivial because the frequent chilly), remoted tribes have nearly no immunity thereof. Merely one interplay between an outsider and a tribe member might wipe out half of a tribe’s whole inhabitants. In 1987, a first-time interplay between an uncontacted individuals, the Zo’é, and members of an evangelical missionary group (The New Tribes Mission) uncovered the tribe to illness which ran rampant by means of their group, decimating its inhabitants. Their numbers have reportedly since recovered, however the preliminary loss was gravely pointless and will have been simply prevented.

Given the severity of the risk from outsiders, protecting laws (and mechanisms to make sure compliance) is crucial. On the worldwide airplane, there aren’t any authorized devices that bind the worldwide group as regards to uncontacted peoples. Even UN declarations such because the 2007 Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples has failed to put an compulsory obligation on international locations to guard tribes inside their borders. If given impact to, the Declaration would make it nearly not possible to drive remoted teams into modernity. For instance, Article 8.1 of the Declaration states that “Indigenous peoples and people have the precise to not be subjected to pressured assimilation or destruction of their tradition.” That is echoed in Article 10 which avers that “Indigenous peoples shall not be forcibly faraway from their lands or territories. No relocation shall happen with out the free, prior and knowledgeable consent of the indigenous peoples involved and after settlement on simply and truthful compensation and, the place doable, with the choice of return”. In an ideal world, these provisions would assure the continued survival of native peoples – in addition to the setting they inhabit. Sadly, nevertheless, to the worldwide group, these are mere pointers with no binding impact.

Many have speculated that the one means uncontacted indigenous teams will survive is thru public strain to demarcate land for them and create mechanisms to forestall exterior intrusion. For instance, Colombia maintains armed patrols round tribal reserves – one thing that might be mirrored in different international locations to realize relative success. Nonetheless, because it stands, no blanket authorized treatment exists to embody all uncontacted peoples, and till one comes into existence, tribe associated laws and unprotected no-go-zones will probably stay ignored by firms and people alike.

The clock is ticking on the survival of uncontacted peoples, and we will solely hope that the resounding authorized failures in respect of their safety will probably be remedied earlier than their time runs out.

In regards to the Creator

Ross Sales space is a 3rd yr LLB scholar at UKZN learning in the direction of at the moment looking for articles of clerkship for the yr of 2022 and hopes to pursue a profession in Company and Finance Regulation. He’s a member of the UKZN Moot Membership, Golden Key Honours Society and represents his class in a number of educational modules. Exterior college, he enjoys athletics and is at the moment coaching in the direction of operating the Two Oceans in 2021. His pursuits embody overseas affairs, politics and cinema. He’s additionally an enormous canine lover with a tender spot for German Shepherds.



Supply hyperlink

Read More

IT IS HAPPENING TODAY!

African Fact Checkers cordially invite you to a Webinar themed: ‘Fake News: Whose problem is it? ‘ Date: Today, 02 October 2020 Time: 12:00 PM West Central Africa Click to register & join:

Read More

CONCEPT NOTE FOR UPCOMING WEBINAR! ‘FAKE NEWS; WHOSE PROBLEM IS IT?’

Hi there,

You are invited to a webinar by AFRICAN FACTS CHECKERS.
Themed: ‘FAKE NEWS; WHOSE PROBLEM IS IT?’

Date: Friday, Oct 2, 2020 12:00 PM West Central Africa Time

 

Goals of the Webinar:

  1. To expose participants to the meaning, dimensions and consequences of fake news.
  2. To enlighten participants on the new and expanding frontiers of fake news.
  3. To provide insights on collective responsibility in the fight against fake news: fighting fake news is everybody’s business.
  4. To provide insights on fact checking and its implications for the present and the future.
  5. To devise a collective framework for dealing with fake news.
  6. To devise strategies for nipping fake news in the bud.

Benefits of Attending:

Participants will:

  1. Gain appreciable and firsthand knowledge of fake news, its implications and consequences.
  2. Appreciate the nature and myriad dimensions of fake news.
  3. Be armed with the tools of fact checking and scrutiny.
  4. Understand the basis for collective responsibility in dealing with fake news.
  5. Be armed with the tools for preventing the spread of fake news.

Register in advance for this webinar:

https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_A5f81AY9SlufIkanPqp1_A

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email about joining the webinar.

 

CONCEPT NOTE FOR THE WEBINAR:

FAKE NEWS; WHOSE PROBLEM IS IT?’

Misinformation also known as ‘Fake News” is gradually gaining much popularity and amplifying the threats facing humanity regardless of one’s location. The dissemination of misinformation can powerfully impact people’s actions and change the value of the interventions employed by governments and other stakeholders. Although some of the influx of these falsehoods may be harmless, others might pose a serious threat by misleading the general population to depend on unjustified and/unsubstantiated claims.

Given that misinformation moves rapidly and more widely through different channels, the effective strategy against heightening public fear on misconstructions is the provision of accurate information that conveys consistent narratives. There are narratives in the Global North that the evolution and manifestation “fake news” has been closely linked with the rise of populist politics, digital capitalism, and the transformation of the public sphere and structural weaknesses of liberal and mainstream media. What then are the drivers of this scourge in Africa? Whose problem is it really?

This webinar will attempt to provide a clear understanding of misinformation, the inherent implications this poses to Africans and highlights the potential strategies to curb this trend.

 

Visit our website: www.africanfactscheckers.com

Reach us via mail: africanfactscheckers@gmail.com

africanpeacemag@gmail.com

You can also follow us on social media:

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/African-Facts-Checkers-110535690596329

Twitter: www.twitter.com/africanfactscheckers

Read More

WEBINAR INVITATION

Hi there,

You are invited to a webinar BY AFRICAN FACTS CHECKERS.
Themed: ‘FAKE NEWS; WHOSE PROBLEM IS IT?’

Date: Friday, Oct 2, 2020 12:00 PM West Central Africa Time

Register in advance for this webinar:

https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_A5f81AY9SlufIkanPqp1_A

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the webinar.

 

Read More

BE A PART OF HISTORY!! JOIN US FOR A REVOLUTIONARY DISCOURSE WEBINAR!

                                                                   

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE IN CONJUNCTION WITH CENTRE FOR PEACE AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA

 

Cordially invites you to a webinar titled:

 

“Strategies for Peaceful Coexistence: Understanding the Causes and Factors that trigger Religious Crises”

Date: September 29, 2020

Time: 12:000 PM West Central Africa

Goals of the webinar:

 

  1. To expose participants to the immediate and remote causes and factors that trigger and sustain religious crises.
  2. To provide insights on the myriad consequences of religious intolerance.
  3. To fashion a framework for peaceful coexistence through proper understanding of the factors that inhibit same.
  4. To advance strategies for the promotion of peace, peaceful coexistence and religious tolerance.
  5. To sustain the discourse on coexistence diplomacy as well as integration of traditional and modern conflict management strategies.

Benefits:

  1. Free Membership of the Centre for Peace and Conflict Management in Africa
  2. Weekly Newsletters from Africa Peace Magazine
  3. Appreciable knowledge of:
  4. a) Factors that sustain the scale and intractability of religious crises
  5. b) Managing diversity and peaceful coexistence
  6. c) Religious tolerance, conflict management, and so much more…

 

Register in advance for this webinar:

https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_So9TXBpwRVuFQ-5PKTI3iQ

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the webinar.

 

CONCEPT NOTE

 

The religious landscape of sub-Saharan Africa has changed dramatically. As of 1900, both Muslims and Christians were relatively small minorities in the region. The vast majority of people practiced traditional African religions, while adherents of Christianity and Islam combined made up less than a quarter of the population, according to historical estimates from the World Religion Database.

Since then, however, the number of Muslims living between the Sahara Desert and the Cape of Good Hope has increased more than 20-fold, rising from an estimated 11 million in 1900 to approximately 234 million in 2010. The number of Christians has grown even faster, soaring almost 70-fold from about 7 million to 470 million. Sub-Saharan Africa now is home to about one-in-five of all the Christians in the world (21%) and more than one-in-seven of the world’s Muslims (15%).

 

A study by a German academic, Matthias Basedau, says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. Conflicts that have a religious dimension are becoming more common worldwide and sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. The region is generally vulnerable to conflicts because many states in sub-Saharan Africa are often weak. It also has to do with the fact that religious conflicts spill over from North Africa and the Middle East; either directly from Libya or Algeria or indirectly through the spread of more radical versions of Islam. However, religion is only one aspect of these conflicts – they can also be ethnic conflicts, or conflicts over power or resources. There is no conflict based purely on religion.

 

According to Genocide Watch, Nigeria has become a killing field of defenseless Christians. Reliable sources show that between 11,500 and 12,000 Christians have been massacred since June 2015 when the Buhari Government of Nigeria came to power.  These statistics are based on careful records kept by church groups that include the names of victims and dates of their murders.

 

Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen accounted for 7,400 murders of Christians. Boko Haram committed 4000 killings of Christians. ‘Highway Bandits’ who separated Christians from Muslims on buses and then killed the Christians committed over 200 murders.

 

This webinar seeks to answer the following questions

 

* What are the causes of religious conflicts?

* Why are countries in sub-Saharan Africa so vulnerable to this kind of conflict?

* What role has globalization and social media played in increasing religious conflicts?

* What are the most practical alternative ways of enhancing the capacity of the inter-religious mediation group to effectively resolve religious conflicts?

* What strategies can be adopted for peaceful co-existence?

 

FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA:

AFRICA PEACE MAGAZINE

Website: www.africanpeace.org

Twitter: www.twitter.com/africanpeacemag

Email: africanpeacemag@gmail.com

Facebook: https://web.facebook.com/africanpeacemag/

I.G: www.instagram.com/africanpeacemagazine

Linkedin: www.linkedin.com/company/african-peace-magazine-ltd

 

 

Website: www.centreforpeace.org

Twitter: www.twitter.com/cfpcma

Email: centreforpeace@gmail.com

Facebook: https://web.facebook.com/Centre-For-Peace-and-Conflict-Mgt-in-Africa

Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/centre-for-peace-and-conflict-management-in-africa

Read More